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ENGINEERING

Brief descriptions of sample projects and papers. Detailed descriptions of over 40 projects are available.

TUNNEL VENTILATION

Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) Spadina Extension: Performed tunnel ventilation analysis, with the Subway Environment Simulation (SES) Computer Program, to design tunnel ventilation system for a six station extension to TTC’s Line 1.

BART extension to San Jose (SVRT): Update BART’s design standards to allow an efficient design of the tunnel ventilation system. Perform analyses and reduced number of fans and eliminated the need for mid-tunnel ventilation shafts.

Engineering Plans

FIRE LIFE SAFETY

Station Egress: Worked with local fire department to eliminate redundant firefighter access requirements to save 1 million USD in construction cost per station.

Tunnel Egress: Compared the safety case of mid-tunnel exits and cross-passage.  Paper available.

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FREIGHT TRAIN VENTILATION

Double-Stack: Performed a relative ventilation analysis using SES to compare current operations with future operations with longer, double-stack trains. Paper available.

Multiple Locomotives: Performed a relative, transient ventilation analysis using SES, CFD, and mathematical models to determine best orientation of multiple locomotive consists for a train.  Paper Available.

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PUBLICATIONS

Never Gray has published 7 papers. Two received honorable mentions and one won a Professional Publication of the year award.

CROSS-PASSAGEWAYS VS. EMERGENCY EXIT STAIRWAYS IN RAIL TUNNELS

This study is quoted in Tech Crunch's article on The Boring Company

NFPA 130 provides two egress options for enclosed 
trainways of transit and passenger rail systems. Tunnels 
longer than 762 meters require 1) emergency exit 
stairways or 2) cross-passageways. There is a perception 
in the industry that emergency exit stairways are safer. 
Some authorities having jurisdiction (such as local fire 
departments) reject the cross-passageway option from 
replacing a stairway.  


The paper compares the two exiting geometries. 
Factors considered are egress of passengers, firefighter 
response, and cost of installation. This paper helps 
designers, owners, and authorities make informed 
decisions based on a comparative analysis. 

Download the paper here.

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APPLICATION OF NFPA 130 TO LOW-FLOOR VEHICLES

​The use of differing standards in North America and Europe is particularly significant in the discussion of low-floor light rail and streetcar vehicles due to the global nature of the vehicle supply industry. In general, the designs originate in Europe or Japan and are adapted for use in the North America.   


A working group comprised of members from several APTA rail transit subcommittees was formed to look into whether specifying NFPA-130 for low-floor vehicles (without additional guidance) might have unintended consequences. Three issues mentioned by multiple carbuilders were fire barrier testing for floors and roof, and the lack of operating classifications in NFPA 130. 

Download the paper here.

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Contact us for additional papers.